The scope of work of the four-year FP4-Rail4EARTH, under the HORIZON-ER-JU-2022-FA4-01 call topic, is to improve the existing sustainability performance of railways, to build a more attractive and resilient transport mode and to contribute towards the objectives of a climate neutral Europe for 2050. The activities are covering the Europe’s Rail Flagship Project 4 Sustainable and Green Rail Systems, including rolling stock, infrastructure, stations, and all their related sub-systems (traction, bogies, brakes, energy storage systems, HVAC, etc.).